民族区域自治制度 | 中国关键词 4

民族区域自治制度

中国是一个统一的多民族国家,迄今为止,通过识别并由中央政府确认的民族有56个。其中,汉族人口最多,其他55个民族人口较少,习惯上被称为少数民族。世界上的多民族国家在处理民族问题方面有不同的制度模式,中国采用的是民族区域自治。民族区域自治是在国家统一领导下,各少数民族聚居的地方设立自治机关,行使自治权,实行区域自治。民族区域自治制度是中国的一项基本政治制度。1984年5月1日,中国颁布了《民族区域自治法》,把党和国家的民族区域自治政策法律化。2001年2月28日,又根据社会主义市场经济条件下出现的新情况,对这一法律进行修改,进一步确立了民族区域自治是中国一项基本政治制度的法律地位。目前,依据宪法和法律,中国共建立了155个民族自治地方,包括5个自治区、30个自治州、120个自治县(旗)。此外,还建立了1100多个民族乡。根据宪法和民族区域自治法的规定,民族自治地方拥有广泛的自治权。

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The system of regional ethnic autonomy

China is a united country with multiple ethnic groups. So far 56 ethnic groups have been recognized and confirmed by the central government. The Han ethnic group has the largest population, while the other 55 ethnic groups have small populations and are customarily known in the country as minority ethnic groups. Different multiethnic countries have different models for handling ethnic issues, and China implements a system of regional ethnic autonomy. Under this system, autonomous governments are set up where ethnic minorities live in concentrated communities to exercise autonomous power and implement regional autonomy under unified government leadership. Regional ethnic autonomy is a basic political system in China. On May 1, 1984, China promulgated the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, which codified the policies of the CPC and state on regional ethnic autonomy. On February 28, 2001, the law was revised in response to the new situations that had emerged in China's socialist market economy and codified the system of regional ethnic autonomy as a basic political system. According to the Constitution and the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, ethnic autonomous areas enjoy extensive autonomy. As of the end of 2008, there were 155 localities enjoying regional ethnic autonomy including five autonomous regions, 30 autonomous prefectures and 120 autonomous counties (banners).